When I had originally asked this question I didn't think about adding it to the Wiki but as one commenter pointed out "Lists of information are discouraged". After reviewing the FAQ I see his point but I still think my question is one that should be answered here on Android-SE. Since users coming from iOS may come to the site seeking help I think the question is a good one but perhaps not in its current form. So my question to meta is: How can I modify my question to be "Wiki Approved"? Thanks for your input.
This is very similar to a shopping recommendation and much of the same advice applies.
Beyond that, consider:
you have created an "infinite list of X" question. Surely there is (probably) an Android equivalent for every single iPhone app?
the equivalents, even if valid now, may change over time; apps change over time. The value of this list will be highly limited as it ages.
Perhaps if you had specific things you were looking for Android equivalents to on iPhone -- like the built in default applications. But scoping it to "any app that can ever be, or will ever be" just doesn't work.